C. elegansÂ has been used to study the different functions of genes as well as mutations that cause diseases in man. Its gene structure has been used by researchers to identify and locate genes and mutations in the human genome to help understand many of the human disorders. For instance,Â C. elegansÂ has long been used to study a genetic human condition of the kidney, the polycystic kidney disease, which involves growth of sacs in the human kidney filled with fluid.Â C. elegansÂ has been used as a model organism to identify the pathways that lead to the growth of the cysts as well as understanding the protein mutations that result to development of the disease (Adams, 2008, p. 1).
Other animal models besidesÂ Caenorhabditis elegansÂ include:Â Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly which is easily cultivated in the lab. Used commonly because it can be easily mutated and they grow fast allowing rapid generations. It is also large enough to see many of its body parts with the naked eyes. Another most used animal isÂ Arbacia puntualata,Â a sea urchin used to study embryology. Hydra has been used to study regeneration and differentiation in animals as well as body symmetry. Besides vertebrates, invertebrates have also been used as model animals such as the Guinea pig, dogs and even cats among many others.
Developmental biologists have over the past decades used the nematode,Â Caenorhabditis elegansÂ as a model animal to study the biological development of a cell. It has been the most preferred model organism/animal over the others because it has certain advantages that make the study work a lot easier and efficient. To start with, it is very transparent allowing the scientists to easily observe the cell that they are studying using a simple dissecting microscope.
It is also advantageous in that it has a small body which makes it easy to grow in large numbers in a cell culture. Its short life cycle of approximately three days allows scientists to produce as many generations as they desire for their studies. Breeding of the nematode is easy since it has both male and hermaphrodite sexes which means that males can mate with the hermaphrodites or in the absence of the males, the hermaphrodite can self-fertilize hence fertilization is always ensured. Advanced microscopes and other study tools such as antibodies can be used on the nematode. Its efficiency is added by the fact that it has a genome which has been sequenced making it much easier for scientists to identify the specific gene of interest (Brenner, 2010, p. 1).
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