Air is heavier than flames and superheated gases such that when air comes in contact with them, the flames and the superheated gases tend to rise. An exposed fire emerges to the surface as a column of hot gases (plume). This results in the fire preheating any combustible matter or fuel above the start point of the fire. As soon as the material gains enough heat, it ignites and substantially increases in volume and leads to spread of the flame and heated gases. As a result, cool air is drawn in at the base of the flame from all directions. There three directions in which fire travels
- Vertical (upward).Â This occurs in situations where the specific structure in which fire is allows upward movement. Such places include open stairways, pipe shafts, elevator shafts, and the gap between exterior and interior walls of a structure. Any flammable matter within the surrounding of the fire may become hot enough to cause these fuels to vaporize and start burning. In cases where there is obstruction of the upward movement of burning vapors there is fanning of these vapors in all directions. They move on the side of the ceiling until they meet another obstruction like a wall. If the wall is devoid of openings, the combustible matter accumulates and is forced to take downward movement on the side of the wall an effect calledÂ the mushrooming effect.
- Horizontal. Products of mushrooming may take on a horizontal direction if they encounter an opening and move to an unaffected area. Any combustible matter in the way of the flame is ignited and there is the spread of the fire horizontally at the level of the ceiling sparing the walls of any damage. Extensive open areas like churches and supermarkets facilitate rapid spread of fire at or near the level of the ceiling. The hot gases accumulate in the uppermost parts and when optimum conditions are achieved, they ignite and start burning. Horizontal spread is very rapid and fire can spread over a large area in a very short time. It is widely accepted that the fire that occurred in the MGM Grand Hotelâ€™s casino in Las Vegas in 1080 may have spread by this method.
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