6.2 ml of 1- butanol was measured and put in a 100 ml round bottom flask using a measuring cylinder. 10 ml of 48% of hydrobromic acid (HBr) was added to the flask with careful whirling after which 4 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added gradually and cautiously into the flask. The contents were swirled constantly, which caused the flask to become hot. The hot flask was cooled in an ice bath followed by the addition of a piece of boiling chip. The flask was connected to a reflux condenser and a sink aspirator and heated at reflux for 45 minutes. After heating, the flask together with its contents was cooled to cool to room temperature. 10 ml of de-ionized water was then added to the flask through the condenser. A new boiling chip was added, and the apparatus was changed to a simple distillation system by detaching the vacuum. The flask contents were distilled into a 25 ml round bottom flask dipped in an ice bath. The distillation process came to an end when the temperature of the distillate reached 100oC. Thereafter, the aqueous phase was removed using a pipette. The product was kept for IR spectroscopy.
The organic layer was washed once using 5 ml of de-ionized water followed by two washes with 5 ml of 5 % sodium bicarbonate and ultimately with 5 ml of deionized water. The organic phase was separated from the aqueous phase and kept in a waste flask. The organic layer was then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and transferred to a pre-weighed sample bottle. The weight of the product was obtained and used to calculate the percentage yield. The identity of the products formed was established by examining the products using IR spectroscopy.
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