The comparison of MZ twins suggests that external and/or internal factors influence in the phenotype by altering the pattern of epigenetic modifications and thus modulating the genetic information. Smoking and some nutritional factors may induce epigenetic changes that modify gene expression, leading to different phenotypes. For, example, Seddon J, George S, Rosner (2006) reported associations between AMD and cigarette smoking, fish consumption, and omega-3 and linoleic acid intake among MZ and DZ twins in this study population.
This study of twins provides evidence that cigarette smoking increases risk while fish consumption and omega-3 fatty acid intake reduce risk of age-related macular degeneration. In a subsequent study Seddon, Reynolds, Shah, and Rosner (2011) evaluated monozygotic twin pairs with discordant age-related macular degeneration phenotypes to assess associations between behavioral and nutritional factors. Heavier smoking in MZ twins was significantly related to advanced stage of age-related macular degeneration.
While, higher dietary vitamin D, betaine, or methionine intake in MZ twins was significantly associated with earlier stage of age-related macular degeneration. These results are suggestive of the fact that behavioral and nutritional factors are associated with epigenetic mechanisms involved in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (Seddon, Reynolds, Shah, and Rosner, 2011)
Along the same lines, ample of evidence implicate that specific nutritional bioactive dietary components can induce alter epigenetic modificatios, specifically in DNA mythelation and histone modification (Hardy and tollefsbol, 2011). Intresingly, these display anticancer properties and may play a role in cancer prevention. Numerous studies suggest that a number of nutritional compounds have epigenetic targets in cancer cells.
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