The latest developments of undulators, in contrast to standard ones, focus the electron beam not only in the vertical plane, but also in the horizontal one. This property simplifies the problem of focusing electron beams in FELs, especially in hybrid undulators, at generating electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range, when noticeably diverging low-energy electron beams are used, as well as when generating short-wavelength radiation in single-pass FEL circuits, where high efficiency is required for interaction of an electron beam and an electromagnetic wave at relatively large longitudinal distances.
Mention should also be made of the use of modernized methods for measuring magnetic fields to tune real undulator designs, in particular, the use of improved Hall and wire methods for measuring magnetic fields to tune real undulator designs, as well as the results of physical experiments using them.
For a prototype maser with a tunable frequency of megawatt power with high efficiency for the Dutch FOM Institute of Plasma Physics, a two-section stepwise profiled hybrid undulator was designed, assembled and tuned . The specific requirements of the project did not allow using the undulator of the standard circuit. An especially serious requirement is a strong magnetic field exceeding the Halbach limit at a relatively large ratio of the undulator gap to the period of the undulator (0.65 and 0.73 for the first and second sections, respectively). In addition, high requirements were imposed on focusing a high-power electron beam in the energy range from 1.75 to 2.0 MeV. The electron beam loss at a current of 12 A should not have exceeded 0.2%. These requirements have been met. A photograph of the assembled undulator and its section are shown in Fig. 5. The main parameters of the manufactured undulator are given in Table 1.
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