The results from microarray analyses in this article showed a commensal species of non-culturable gram-positive bacteria. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) in the small intestine induce the increase in concentration of Th17 cells. SFB is known to recruit intraepithelial lymphocytes to the intestine. The accumulation of Th17 cells, induced by the colonization of SFB in germ free cells also involved in the induction of acute-phase inflammation is released during acute phase inflammation (Ivaylo, Koji, Manel, Eoin, Tatsuichiro, Ulas, Dongguang, Goldfarb, Santee, Lynch, Takeshi, Akemi, Kikuji, Kiyoshi, Yoshinori, Honda, & Littman 489). This study also showed that colonization of SFB protected the cell from pathogens. An increased number of gene expressions of anti-microbe and inflammation proteins were also seen to correlate with the colonization of SFB. These findings show that SFB microbes play a role in maturation of adaptive immune response in mucosal intestine through the accumulation of Th17 cells. These findings are important because this information will open doors to do more research to find out the exact mechanism of how these commensal microorganisms influence host immune system. By understanding these commensal regulated pathways, researchers can manipulate these pathways to enhance the mucosal immune response and come up with better ways of treating autoimmune diseases. Moreover, by understanding how SFB induce Th17 and how Th17 cells accumulate inflammatory response, researchers can administer an antibody, which could effect the expression of IL-23 and IL 17 to regulate Th17 response and cause beneficial effects for patients with intestinal autoimmune disorder such as crohnâ€™s disease.
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